This was probably one of the quickest repairs I've ever had. I got a pile of Atari Centipede boards I needed to test and get up and running, what's nice about that is that I can swap things around quickly.
First board I looked at had corrupted graphics. The game was running just fine, but the sprites were all wrong. Some were fully corrupted and most were completely wrong.
So with centipede, it has two 2516/2716 equivalent ROMs for storing the sprite data. They are located at F7 and H/J7. I noticed that one of the ROMs was physically damaged, so I changed that one first and saw improvement. Sprites were no longer glitchy but were wrong. Replacing the second had fixed the rest of the graphics troubles.
Sometimes it really is that easy, ROMs are not difficult or expensive to replace, so easy and cheap fix. This repair only took about 5 minutes from first seeing it with corrupted graphics to seeing it working perfectly.